Sorry Mark, you have no clue what you're talking about.
There were nearly ZERO descendents of the Chinese that built the
railroads. The ones that didn't die were shipped back to China.
As recently as 1964 when my parents came here from Taiwan for graduate
school, they had to hide the fact that they were engaged. If they had
been married, they would not have been able to come here together.
The extent of this was that my mother had to attend a different
college and later transferred to UVA where my Father was attending.
1850s - Chinese immigrants come to the United States mainland
to work in California gold mines and play an essential
role in building the transcontinental railroads. An
estimated 1800-2000 Chinese die during construction
due to accidents, disease, or poor living conditions.
1852 - California imposes "Foreign Miner's Tax" ($3) for any
miner who is not an intending citizen. In 1855,
California imposes $50 tax on newly arrived miners
who are not intending citizens. (Note: only
whites were eligible for naturalization.) In 1858,
landing of Chinese are prohibited altogether. In
1862, California imposes a head tax of $2.5 per month
on resident Chinese immigrants.
1868 - The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution grants
citizenship rights to all persons born in the United
Congress modifies citizenship law to include "aliens of
African nativity and persons of African descent" as
eligible for naturalization. Asian immigrants remain
the only group excluded from naturalization.
1869 - Transcontinental railroads completed. Resentment
against Chinese workers rises. Anti-Chinese clubs
and organizations appear in California. Major
political parties adopt anti-Chinese platforms.
THE NEW YORK TIMES on Chinese immigrants: "A population
befouled with all the social vices, with no knowledge or
appreciation of free instituions or constitutional
liberty, with heathenish souls and heathenish propen-
sities, whose character, and habits, and modes of
thought are firmly fixed by the consolidating influence
of ages upon ages."
1871 - About 20 Chinese are massacred in Los Angeles by a
white mob. In 1877, a similar incident occurs in San
Francisco's Chinatown, and 5 Chinese farmers are also
murdered in Chico, Calif.
1873 - San Francisco passes Laundry Ordinance, imposing a tax
of $1.25 on laundry shops owning one horse-drawn
vehicle, $15 on laundry shops owning no horse-
drawn vehicle (most Chinese-owned shops belonged to
the latter category), and Cubic Air Ordinance, requiring
that living spaces are to have at least 500 cubic
feet of space per person (this ordinance is only
enforced in Chinatown).
The Laundry Ordinance also forbade shops of wood
construction on grounds of fire hazard. Mr. Yick Wo,
who had owned and operated a laundry shop for 20 years,
was denied a renewal of license and subsequently
imprisoned for violating the Laundary Ordinance. The
subsequent legal fight is appealed to the United States
Supreme Court, which ruled in favor of Wo.
1880 - California enacts law to prohibit whites from marrying
a "negro, mulatto, or Mongolian". After a Fillipino
successfully argued in court that he was a Malay, not
a "Mongolian", and should be allowed to marry a white
women, the legislature amended the law to include
Fillipinos in the prohibition list in 1933.
1882 - "Chinese Exclusion Act" passes Congress. Among other
restrictions, this act prohibits wives of male laborers
from entering the United States. Emigration of
Chinese laborers is suspended for 10 years.
1887 - 31 Chinese miners are robbed, murdered, and mutilated
in the "Snake River (Oregon) Massacre".
1880s - Japanese immigrants come to U.S. mainland, engaged
mostly in agriculture and trade.
1892 - Chinese immigration suspended for another 10 years.
Chinese immigrants already in the U.S. are required
to obtain "certificate of residence".
1900s - Filipino immigrants come to the U.S., Largely as laborers.
with emigration increasing substantially in the 1920s.
1904 - Chinese immigration ban extended indefinitely. Because
the earlier Chinese immigrants have been predominately
male, the result of the immigration ban and the Chinese
Exclusion act have caused the Chinese population to drop
from 105,465 in 1880 to 61,639 in 1920.
1907 - Japanese government negotiates "Gentleman's Agreement"
with U.S. to voluntarily restrict emigration of
unskilled Japanese to the U.S., in exchange, parents,
wives, fiancees, and children of Japanese immigrants
are allowed entry. Japanese population grows from 25,000
in 1900 to roughly 127,000 in 1940, surpassing the
1913 - California enacted Asian Land Law, prohibiting persons
ineligible for citizenship from owning land in
California, targeting Japanese immigrants. Many Japanese
farmers circumvent the law by purchasing land under the
names of their American-born children. In 1920, the law
is amended to forbid Japanese immigrants from acting as
guardians for their children in matter of land-
ownership, and prohibited them from leasing land.
1917 - Immigration Act of 1917 bans immigration from all
countries in the Asian-Pacific Triangle except for
the Philipines and Japan.
1924 - Immigration Act of 1924 bans immigration from Japan.
Immigration quota for all countries are limited to 2%
of their population already in the U.S. Persons
ineligible for citizenship (i.e. Asians) are not
allowed to immigrate.
1934 - The Tydings-McDuffe Act gives the Phillipines Commonwealth
status and declares Filipinos not born in the
United States as aliens. An annual quota of _50_
Filipinos are permitted to emigrate to the U.S.
1935 - The Repatriation Act offers one-way tickets to the
Phillipines to resident Filipinos, under condition that
they agreed not to return to the U.S. About 2000
people accept the offer.
1942 - President Roosevelt orders internment of 100,000
Japanese immigrants for reasons of national defense.
The internees were officially released in Jan. 1945.
No similar internments were ordered for persons of
German or Italian descent.
In 1948 Congress passes Japanese American Evacuation
Claims Act, offering compensation which amounts to
about 10 cents for each dollar actually lost.
1943 - The Chinese Exclusion Act is repealed. The annual
immigration quota for Chinese is set at _105_.
1945 - The War Brides Act permits immigration of Asian
spouses and children of American servicemen in the
1946 - Filipinos and Asian Indians granted eligibility for
naturalization. Immigration quota for the two
countries were also increased.
1952 - The McCarran-Walter Act ends Asian immigration ban
and extends naturalization rights to all races (the
first time for Asians). However, The act retains the
2% quota system of the 1924 Act, effectively
discriminating against Asian immigrants because of
their small resident population.
On Sat, 20 Sep 2003 22:58:50 -0400, Mark Simpson
Post by Mark Simpson
If you knew your history, you would know that the U.S. in the 1700 and 1800
stole much technology and agricultural products from other countries.
England was one of our favorites. France came in second. Germany was next as
I recall. In addition, we recruited thousands of Chinese laborers by lying
to them and making promises we never had any intention of honoring. They
built much of the RRs that was essential for the country to grow. They died
by the thousands. The British Comet Jet designs helped our aviation. When
the Comets started crashing, the lessons learned by the British were taken
and incorporated into our commercial jets giving us a leg up on them.
All nations steal technology from each other just as everyone screws the
neighbor's wife - if she is pretty.
Give me a break. I'm so sick of the liberal, bad American dribble. The
descendants of those Chinese immigrants that came to build the railroads
are wealthier and infinitely better off than their Homies. The same can
be said for EVERY group of immigrants into the US including the slaves.
NAR 71503 Level II
God Bless our peacekeepers